Wednesday, December 10, 2014

Buffetting : 必须








Tuesday, December 9, 2014

Buffetting : Animal Handling 101- Chocolate and Animals

Disclaimer: This is an article written by a veterinary student. All information is based on non-professional interpretation of the student and is not subjected to any responsibilities of the readers' disposal.

Chocolates are close to have drug-induced property; for man who craves and succumbs into the sweetness and heavenly taste the exquisite confectionery offers. From the sweetened to unsweetened dark chocolate, today offering different percentages of sweetness on rack; it is close to impossible for any living man to have not tasted, or indulge in the modern goodness of chocolate.

Constituting an array of organic substances which affects our brain through different biochemical reaction; such as the pheneylethylamine(PEA) and theobromine; man loves chocolate for a reason not because of the sugar content, but PEA which acts on the brain to stimulate a very important neurotransmitter
(endogenous biochemical matter aiding in stimulating neurological effects in the body and brain)- dopamine which elevates the feeling of pleasure in the body. It is unknown if animals, especially companion ones are able to appreciate such indulgence in chocolate, but if you are thinking of sharing your piece of mind of that piece of chocolate with your companion dog or cat; stop it. 


As far as food is concerned, dogs and cats cannot naturally gain access to cocoa fruit, let alone process them in their body. A tiny bit of chocolate off that bar you have gained so much happiness from will be your worst nightmare when they get into the mouth of your furry friends. 

WHY? The mechanism
Chocolate contains a high level of theobromine, a biochemical matter similar to that of caffeine which brings a about the same effect in our body; diuresis- meaning you hit the loo more, better concentration and sometimes ever a higher heart rate. 
courtesy of : dogs and cats

Theobromine, once metabolized by the liver liberate a group of metabolite named methylxanthine; in a series of event leading to increase of free muscle cell calcium level; which induces higher contraction of the heart muscles and skeletal muscles.Apart from that, theobromine will also act on the smooth muscles of our bodies, leading to their relaxation contributing to a relaxed brochi(thoat) as well as renal diuresis(frequent urination).Apart from that, theobromine also competes with endogenous receptors in the brain resulting in higher rate of central nervous system stimulation; which may trigger a higher release of adrenaline and noradrenaline; stacking the effect on increased heart rate and diuresis.

Sounds good? Nope.

courtesy of: modern dog

Methylaxinthine in dogs, unlike in human are not being further metabolized; meaning they stay in the body and will be excreted in the urine as they are; in human methylxanthins are metabolized via CYPA12, absent in dog's and cat's liver, and secreted in the urine as other non-toxic metabolites.

Meaning, dogs have a lower threshold of chocolate toxicity tolerance compared to human. While humans require about 10 to 20g to induce toxicity(about 100 cups of chocolate milk); and ounce of chocolate milk(100mg) can do the job to kill the dog.

The overt concentration of methylxanthine in dogs will cause an overdrive in the CNS stimulation, often leaving the animal in a convulsion(fits) state post emetic episodes- leading to death. The overly stimulated heart ,respiration apparatus and urinary system may also lead to death due to multiple causes including hemorrhage, respiratory alkalosis, dehydration which all leads to death.

If you have suspected the culprit of the nibble on your chocolate bar is not your meddling kids but your furry friends; look out for:
courtesy of : Leo's Pet Care

1- Frequent urination
2- Hyperventilation
3- Vomitting
4- Neurological signs or abnormal behavior
5-Muscle rigidity or spasmic episodes

The right thing to do:
Send your dogs to the vet immediately. Do not attempt to treat your animal because you will only make it worse. In most cases, the vets will try their best to accomplish these goals:

1-Prevent further absorption of the chocolate in the animal. If the animal suspected is pretty recent up to 4 hours of exposure, emetics or gastric lavage maybe attempted. An activated charcoal may also be prescribed to absorb the remaining chocolate residue in the stomach if the exposure goes beyond 4 hours

2- Antidotes are absent in theobromine toxicity; hence a symptomatic treatment approach is usually used. Muscle relaxants such as methocarbamol may be attempted to reduce the muscle hyperactivity in spasm usually to reduce nervous impulse trigger.

3- Supportive treatment such as IV fluids to maintain the hydration status of the dog or cat from the toxicosis episode; as emesis will incur high loss of fluids and water from the body.

The Summary:
Responsible pet ownership does not stop at providing food and shelter and love to the animal. It includes understanding the general physiology of the animal as well as dos and don'ts in making sure the veterinary health of the animal is up to par. Never anthromorphize animals.

Next post: onions and cats.

Saturday, December 6, 2014

Buffetting : Speculating

With the amount of meetings and activities from the current presidency I'm holding, I can barely stay longer than 3 days at home without having the need to get back to the university.

If I were to be a sucker president, probably I can stay more than 3 days; but I am not.

Mom finally acknowledged my role as a veterinary student, no longer pressuring me with "you should have studied medicine" issue.

More news on the issues with the Malaysian health system in the coming years will probably enlighten her more.

And the fact that veterinary medicine actually based out from human medicine; for which I know almost all the physiology and anatomy of human similarly in prescribing drugs and dealing with signs and symptoms probably even balance out the odds of her biased opinion.

Saying this, I'm now much more determined to change the views of the public opinion in Malaysia on veterinarian's roles in the society in the future.

And mom asked and speculated if I'm actually seeing someone(or some girl) in the university grounds because of my frequency in going back to the university.

I denied it of course; only to have a good thought about it.

I'm not the best looking guy;
I'm not the smartest guy;
I'm not the richest guy;
I'm not the most charming guy;
I'm not the most patient guy;
In fact I have so many flaws I can barely count them with my fingers alone;

Which girl in the right mind would want to be with me?

As of now I'm probably having an extremely LSE(low self esteem) issue, I wouldn't be able to actually go and get into a relationship or even flirt; let alone be with another person.

I guess mom didn't see that in me.

That aside, an episode of drama popped out in the club again.

Apparently a person who volunteered to make print outs for the workshop tomorrow didn't do it; she couldn't hear what the instruction was because she was out whole day in a very busy and noisy dance event.

I was pissed off because all she had to do was to say she can't do it, I could have take up matters my own and settle in hours before the meeting. I was dumbfounded when I saw her coming towards the table without any printouts.

It's just hard to get a reliable workforce these days.

I don't even mind if she'd asked me to do it instead if she were to be busy. It sure hell is less much of a problem that her making us staying up all night cleaning up after her mess for she didn't manage to do her part.

Its a good thing these girls are really good to work with in practicals.

Or maybe I'm just expecting too much?

I believe in a good workforce means to give solution, not to create problem.

She just became a huge source of problem.

If you can't work, don't even bother.

I just hope I wouldn't be meeting people like this when I own a business or a working team in the future.

Friday, December 5, 2014

Buffettting : Damping

All the hassle of tests finally came to slow motion after the hectic 11 weeks.

Odd that I'd actually find the semester gone by faster than I thought it would.

Thinking that letting go as the co-director position for Dogathon would put me on halt for student activities but hell no it doesn't stop there.

I wonder if it were the impulse I had because T broke up with me, so I decided blatantly 7 months ago to just take up the position.

But it's fine; the club smothers me while I can barely see what I actually get out of it yet knowing that the club is better than it was before because I worked with a good team to build it is still satisfying.

It makes me know that I'm still the management and organizational type of person; resourceful to send people into right direction.

I think.

December means Christmas is around the corner; but this year its probably going to be a family gathering dinner again in the study week. Let's hope I don't screw up my finals again.

One more practical test, one more theory test 3; and finals all the way.

Did I mention there is also another equine workshop along the way?

Time to charge up for finals!

Saturday, November 29, 2014

Buffetting : Animal Handling 101- Panadol and animals

Disclaimer: This is an article written by a veterinary student. All information is based on non-professional interpretation of the student and is not subjected to any responsibilities of the readers' disposal.

I'm pretty sure I would have made a great pharmacist with my flair for pharmacology. Heck, we literally became dispensers of drugs over 1 semester of studies only compared to the professional pharmacy students. Yet, we only prescribe and dispense; we can't compound(aka make) drugs.

Paracetamol, also known as acetaminophen is the generic name of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug(NSAID) named after its chemical name of N-acetyl-p-aminophenol is an easily retrieved over-the-counter drug commonly used in any household. Widely known as Panadol in Malaysia, the antipyretic drug is usually used to relief headache and fever in most cases.

With its miraculous use, it is normal for us to actually consider its use even for animals. If it works well in human, of course animals would be fine right?

This is when you are WRONG.

Drugs consumed in our body requires several organic mechanics for them to release the active ingredient and work on our body's biochemical pathways. In this case, acetaminophen serves the same as well.

However, species variation does prevail in every single drug used, zoonotically or interspecies.

While human can take up to 4000mg for an adult in a day without any adverse effect(recommended dose of 1000mg), cats only can withstand up to 100mg/kg while dogs 600mg/kg.

That means, one tablet of conventional acetaminophen of 500mg can already kill a cat weighing 2.5 to 3.0kg; while a 5 kg cat is already considered overweight.

In fact, acetaminophen is never prescribed for veterinary use; regardless of their species.

WHY? The mechanism

The metabolic pathway of acetaminophen in the liver includes 3 different pathways; the glucouronidase, the sulfonation as well as the cytochrome p450 pathway.

In cats, the first 2 mechanisms are extremely limited due the lack of required enzymes; hence a high dependence on the latter pathway. However, a high dose of acetaminophen renders the ability of the pathway to metabolize the incoming drug concentration; leading to a problem of Acetaminophen Toxicosis.

In the cytochrome P-450 pathway, acetaminophen is metabolized into NAPQI, a toxic substance; which requires the conjugation with gluthathione from the body reserve to be metabolized into cysteine and mercapturic acid which are non-toxic. The depletion of the gluthathione reserves in the cat's body due to a high acetaminophen dosage will lead to a high accumulation of toxic NAPQI in the body.

Gluthathione depletion leads to red blood cell oxidation injury while methemoglobin, an alternative form of red blood cell will be produced due to the oxidation of Fe2+ haem group to Fe3+ haem group. Red Blood Cell oxidation causes the death of the RBC leading to jaundice; while the failure of methemoglobin to bind to oxygen due to the inability of Fe3+ to be further oxidized causes a cyanosis effect(pale from hypoxia). NAPQI accumulation also damages the liver, contributing to the occurrence of jaundice.

The Signs
Once you have accidentally fed your cat or dog with panadol, there are signs that you can have a look out for:
1- Cyanosis- pale and blue appearance
2- Jaundice- yellow staining on the eyes and gums
3- Pallor- pale and blue and no energy
4- Facial edema- swelling of the face for which the bouncing back of skin after pressure is more than 2 secs.
5- Hypersalivation

courtesy of catvando

The Right Thing to do:
Send your cat or dog to the vet immediately. The vet will be able to diagnosis and assess what treatment to be given to the cat. In most cases. the vets will try their best to accomplish the goals below:

1- Prevent further absorption of the drug in the animal; usually emetics to induce vomiting or a gastric lavage if your animal is already comatose. An activated charcoal may also be prescribed. These procedures are only useful when the toxicosis is recent and the drug is consumed within few hours.

2- Antidote prescription; in this case a mucolytic named acetylcysteine. The drug works was a gluthathione precursor to supply the body with enough gluthathione for the conjugation of NAPQI into a non-toxic product. This drug is the first line drug to be considered in every acetaminophen toxicosis as it is the antidote to the problem source.

3- Reduce methemoglobin presence in the body to replenish the normal RBC . Vitamin C will be prescribed along with a single dose of methylene blue.

4- Supportive treatment if the cat or dog is extremely ill;  usually with blood transfusion, IV drip and oxygen provision. Cimetidine, a histamine-2 agonist may also be prescribed to inhibit the action of cytochrome P450 in generating more NAPQI toxic.

The Summary: 
Responsible pet ownership does not stop at providing food and shelter and love to the animal. It includes understanding the general physiology of the animal as well as dos and don'ts in making sure the veterinary health of the animal is up to par. Never anthromorphize animals.

So, get educated!

Another series will be updated on the nutrition segment of the companion animals in the near future!

Friday, November 28, 2014

Buffetting : Doing more

During the clinical conference this evening, I somehow ended up sitting beside Miss N.

We are usually professionally associated, talking about academics most of the time because we have differences; but I guess my simple gesture of handing her a packet of pills for cold broke the ice barrier.

So we were talking about various issues; until Miss N startled me a little on her comment.

"I feel like people like you who have the brains should go further more and contribute to the veterinary profession more than just being in sales; or just a small animal practitioner."

I wasn't expecting that from her, because well she is pretty well-known for the good grades; 4.0 for every semester if I weren't wrong.

And silly little me who hardly get any 4.0 in my life before*cross fingers for this semester* being acknowledged by the comment simply was, dumbfounded.

Maybe a little over the top for that comment; but I guess she feels like I can do more for the veterinary community than just pharmaceutical sales.

I'm still in the midst of deciding.

I definitely wish to complete a PhD to end my academic pathway with a great full stop; as my life accomplishment as well as a pride for my family(though I'm sure the Dr title does well for that)

But there are so much more to offer out there; and I sometimes do feel like being a materialistic person.

Yet, some voice in there screams *be yourself, because you will shine better that way*

So I guess Miss N did a great job for a pep talk session.

Tuesday, November 25, 2014

Buffetting : Wrong vibes

The faculty these days require an extra spice.(not that the recurrent theft cases have not done a fabulous job on that)

By spice I meant, like lovey dovey spices.

Lady Boss finally made it official with Sea, which is really about time.

However, when a new couple buds, the people around; especially the ones who used to hang out with them will probably feel the effect most.

Even if the couples weren't really doing much of PDA or what not, us being reserved as Asians probably would just back off to give them some space.

Before Lady Boss made it official, it was always the dynamic trio of me, Lady Boss and Ice Queen around; for we would go for lunch and all together.

Now, its just me and Ice Queen. Not to say that we don't have other Vet souls around to mingle with because we do; its just that most of the time before, we were the ones to hang out because of our long time of contact in the practicals.

Well, being just me and Ice Queen; and our interaction over the social media and meet ups, people begin to pull red strings for the both of us. Polar Bear probably thought the both of us really had something going on.

We probably have chemistry, but in the really close friend kind of way. We know our romantic preferences and heck we are definitely not for each other in any romantic ways. Plus, Ice Queen's one of the first ones to know about T, she'd probably be turned off by me.

But its comfortable to have Ice Queen around and just talk, about almost anything and everything. At least for me. It's not easy to get someone to talk like that. As of the conditions these days, its even worse.

The guys are probably no longer available for there's only 4 single blokes left; the others are taken.
Same goes to the girls.
What's making the whole picture even more complex is the rotation in year 4, everyone seemed to be just not together anymore; simply because the time for rotation takes up so much of their lives.

I don't blame them or anything. But I can slowly feel a certain degree of letting go by my side for now. They are probably too sedated by tests and academics to notice; while I'm still available to post here every fortnight or so. On the other hand, I'm slowly assimilating into my current academic batch in their outings and fun stuffs; apart from just academics.

Life is complex. Relationships are even more.

I'm just grateful that we can still talk about stuffs even after a long time. Just like Best bud, I think.

Side note: T is now back in my newsfeed; but I'm pretty sure I'm not in T's. I would say I'm slowing getting over T, but there are still shades of our memories. And there are still questions on why did T suggest the break up back then.

Yet, in split seconds I would say its meaningless. Because romance right now, is meaningless to me.

Monday, November 24, 2014

Buffetting : Be Vigilant

About everything you do pretty much.

Today I had my probably worst paper of the semester.

Not because I coudn't answer it, more like the after effects from the studying.

Usually I'm pretty much well prepared for the tests; or so I believe.

But today's was absolutely different to the point that on the previous night I'm still stressing over the facts that I may not yet gotten right.

The other fact which makes the whole paper lot harder is because it's a Pharmacology paper, for which there are 7 systems of drugs I need to know from Gastrous, Cardiac, Urinary, Respiratory, Cerntral Nervous System, Peripheral Nervous System, as well as the Ocular system.

The lecturer mentioned that we need not know the drug names, for which he will be providing the group names and only require us to explain the function.

Heck no, the test turn out otherwise.

Everyone else was wondering why did I spend so much effort memorizing the names of the drugs.

Well now they do.

Deceived by the lecturer, yes. But we should be vigilant at all times. Some lecturers are meant to be guarded of, especially this one.

Well, I would say I did well for the test, being the first one to leave and all. And I deserve my break tonight because of the migraine the whole study process gave me.

This Friday, virology. Pathogenesis, clinical signs and morphological here we go.

Saturday, November 22, 2014

Buffeting : Naughty boy

Did I mention I'm like this pet for a particular lecturer in my pharmacology course?

It happened on the first day of lecture because I was able to answer most of her questions on basic pharmacology, thanks to my Form 6 days. Thanks to that phenomenon, she makes it a point to ask me all the first questions she have in the lecture ; every single lecture.

Thanks to that, I too make a point to read up her notes before her lecture begins; and I managed to practice that for other courses too.

So yesterday we had lecture on prescription writing. She wanted us to present our definitions on prescription. Here's mine:

The details of a drug including its active ingredient, dosage, administration route, frequency and duration which is given to the patient specifically to alleviate an indication by a veterinarian.

What the lecturer had in mind was:

The instruction given to the pharmacist by a veterinarian to prepare a drug for use in the patient for the client.

I forgot.

Our patients can't comprehend prescriptions. Our clients can.

For that, the lecturer gave a comment of "Patient? Naughty boy... how can your patient read this?" while the whole class burst into laughter; including me.

Naughty boy? Well, it has been a long time. Pun both intended and not.

Friday, November 21, 2014

Buffetting : Foreplan

Sorry, the last alphabet probably caught you off guard.

Being in the vet program of my university speaks of planning ahead; way ahead compared to other courses; that I'm pretty sure.

Placements for practical training ain't as abundant as they used to, because of the increasing number of students; not to mention dates, deadlines and cheap air tickets to be bought before they all come haunting you last minute.

In my academic year 4, we need to complete 2 courses of extra mural placements, namely:

Extra mural clinical rotation
Extra mural laboratory placement

In the clinical rotation, we are required to complete rotations of ruminant medicine, equine medicine, small animal medicine and an elective medicine; all which require supervision of a certified veterinarian.

For ruminant and electives; I've decided to go for Mahidol University in June-July 2015 for a 4 week exchange program; since their agriculture is still far ahead from ours, while their climate differ much less compared to the European countries as well.

For equine and small animal medicine; I've decided to still retain in local veterinarian vicinity since I'm afraid that I might not be able to appreciate the beauty of the medicine before I enter surgery class. Plus, I'd figure the local scene will be much suffice to sustain our industry right now; maybe I'll consider European countries later on.

In laboratory placement, we are required to complete 3 weeks of any lab placements. I've chosen Yamaguchi University in August-September 2015 for the public health lab placement; simply because I've been dying to go to Japan, while their laboratory facilities are probably worth the money to explore. Plus, my vet student counterpart from IVSA in Japan managed to lodge me a volunteer accommodation for I need not pay for 3 weeks, why not nab that opportunity?

Planning ahead is really important for these placements; or you will really get a migraine as the dates come closer. Even if you are only thinking of going local, places are still limited.

Thanks to the vet school, I've managed to slash off Japan and Thailand off my travel list! Maybe a 10 weeks placement in an European country in my 5th year since I've no more placements by then.

Now, to focus on more drugs effect of pharmacology!!!!


Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...